The lesser coat of arms of the Russian Empire under the reign of Nicholas II, the last Emperor of Russia. The double-headed eagle represents sovereignty over both the East and the West, while the three crowns symbolise the conquered kingdoms of Kazan, Astrakhan, and Siberia. Alternatively, they are interpreted as standing for the unity of Great Russia (Russia), Little Russia (the Ukraine) and White Russia (Belarus). The center is the escutcheon of St. George, surrounded by the collar of the Order of Saint Andrew, which was the highest order of chivalry in the Russian Empire. St. George would eventually become the patron saint of Moscow (and, by extension, of Russia). The wings bear the Arms of Astrakhan, Siberia, Georgia, Finland, Kiev-Vladimir-Novgorod, Taurica, Poland and Kazan, the provinces of the Russian Empire. The scepter in the left talon represents total secular authority, whereas the globus cruciger in the right talon represents total religious authority.